Trade restrictions on metals and minerals
The intensity of export restrictions on the trade of metals and minerals is increasing, affecting the cost of products, introducing supply-chain uncertainties, and leading to trade disputes. Rarely do they achieve the purpose for which they were put in place. Import restrictions, by contrast, are more transparent, predictable, and subject to stronger disciplines. But highly restrictive measures, whether imposed by importers or exporters, represent a real impediment to trade in affected products.